Previously, if conservative treatment of varicose veins does not bring the desired results or complications pose a serious risk to the patient's health, doctors prescribe surgery. In this case, the affected vein is completely removed, and scars remain on the skin after the operation. Modern medicine allows in certain cases to replace outdated surgery with more modern laser therapy.
The essence of the impact is that a laser beam with a certain wavelength is directed at the varicose vein. Blood cells convert the incoming impulse into heat energy, as a result of which the affected vein seems to be sealed and the blood begins to circulate in deeper healthy pathways.
At the same time, all adjacent tissues remain intact, as the laser beam acts selectively and the area of the body on which the manipulation was performed subsequently does not cause discomfort due to the damaged vein.
Laser surgery for varicose veins is divided into two types that are used in different situations. Percutaneous laser correction is used in most cases to treat the venous network, which can be called an early stage in the development of varicose veins. The procedure is performed without direct contact with the skin, and the result is no different from other types of procedures, but in this case the vein should not exceed 3 mm in diameter.
Endovasal laser coagulation (EVLK) is used more frequently, in Europe this procedure has become a priority method of therapy, and surgical treatment of varicose veins is gradually being relegated to the background. EVLK involves a microscopic incision in the skin through which the light guide is inserted into the damaged vein. This feature allows you to freely "glue" any varicose vein that does not exceed 1 cm in diameter. The whole process is under the control of ultrasound diagnostics, so the risk of medical error is minimal.
Negative reviews of laser coagulation of veins are most often left by people who have trusted an inexperienced doctor or ignored the advice of a specialist.
Indications and contraindications
Each procedure has indications and contraindications, which must be told by the attending physician. In the case of treatment of varicose veins of the legs with laser coagulation, the specialist should carefully check the prerequisites for the procedure.
First, the vein must expand in the mouth by no more than 10 mm, otherwise the therapy will be useless and the problem will return soon.
Second, the vein must have a smooth course of the trunk so that the light guide can pass through it freely from beginning to end.
Third, there should not be too many varicose veins.
Before starting laser treatment, it is necessary to take into account the existing contraindications for the procedure:
- predisposition to thrombophlebitis;
- any chronic diseases in the acute phase;
- circulatory pathology;
- varicose veins over 1 cm;
- inflammatory processes in the affected area;
- infectious diseases accompanied by fever;
- low patient mobility for health reasons.
If you ignore the existing contraindications, there may be negative consequences that will be much more difficult to eliminate. In order for the procedure to be successful, it is necessary to contact only a specialized medical institution, which employs experienced and responsible specialists.
How is the procedure
In consultation with a doctor, the patient answers all the necessary questions and undergoes an examination so that the specialist can decide whether laser treatment of varicose veins will help in this case and whether it is necessary at all. Tests are then prescribed and if no contraindications are found, the date of the session is announced.
There is no specialized preparation for laser coagulation, but the patient must follow certain recommendations from a specialist:
- loose and comfortable clothing and footwear must be worn, especially in the last days before the appointed date;
- a few days before the procedure, you should stop taking drugs that affect the viscosity of the blood.
In the first stage, the phlebologist, together with a specialist in ultrasound diagnostics, marks and marks the location of the entire part of the vein affected by varicose veins on the affected area of the patient's body. This step can vary in length: if the vein is straight and short, the process will only take a few minutes, and if it is often twisted and involved in a long stretch, the marking may take longer.
The second stage is the use of local anesthesia, which is most often used as novocaine if the patient is not allergic to it. The doctor, under the control of an ultrasound machine, carefully cuts the affected vein without damaging it. This stage is very important because it not only anesthetizes the procedure, but also prevents the impact of the laser beam on nearby tissues.
Laser removal of varicose veins begins with the selection of a suitable radiation regimen by a phlebologist. A small incision is then made through which a light guide is brought to the vein if endovasal coagulation is performed, or the laser acts superficially if the percutaneous method is chosen. Using an ultrasound machine, the phlebologist controls the process and moves the source of the laser beam along the entire length of the varicose vein.
After laser treatment of the veins of the lower extremities you will have to wear compression underwear for two weeks, and in the first days after the procedure not only during the day but also at night. Also, immediately after exposure and thereafter for two weeks, you will need to take walks lasting at least 30 minutes.
Consequences of therapy
In most cases, varicose veins of the legs and other parts of the body undergo laser coagulation without side effects and recurrences. At first, the patient may feel discomfort, pain or other discomfort in the affected area, and bruising may occur, but this gradually disappears. Otherwise you will need the help of a doctor.
If the course of laser treatment of varicose veins of the legs and other parts of the body has been disrupted or the patient has ignored the advice of a specialist, more serious complications may occur. The most harmless of these is the penetration of infection through an open wound, which is treated with antibiotics. A more serious complication is the appearance of a thrombus on the superficial or deep veins, which can only be treated surgically.